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Perma-Fix Blog

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Your Solution for Radioactive Wastewater

Evaporation is a great solution for low level radioactive, non-hazardous waste waters. This technology allows for large volumes to be processed for minimal landfill impact, saving the customer in transportation and disposal costs. PFF's trained staff allows for preliminary or final treatment of the water/residue to ensure LDR compliance on all waste streams.

An Ideal Solution for:

  • Nuclear Power Industry
  • Analytical Laboratories
  • Research and Development Laboratories
  • Contaminated Water run-off

Process Efficiency

Our evaporator allows significant volume reductions for landfill disposal. Most waste waters can achieve volume reductions greater than 100.

Man observing machinery

New Treatment Process

  • Continuous processing available
  • Drums to tankers accepted
  • Simple treatment solution for radioactive non-RCRA wastewater

The Perma-Fix of Florida (PFF) facility located in Gainesville, Florida has a wide range of mixed, radioactive and non-radioactive waste treatment capabilities. PFF is home to our state-of-the-art Research and Development Laboratory that develops custom treatment recipes and protocols for specialty waste streams. This laboratory has been successful in applying technologies and treatment processes to safely manage and dispose of many of the nuclear industry's no-path to disposal wastes.

4. Convenient Transportation Options
Our network of brokers and transportation partners gives us an extensive footprint of operation.

Contact our wastewater treatment specialists today!
Perma-Fix Waste BD & Sales Team
contactus@perma-fix.com | 1-800-905-0501


With more than 20 years of experience, Perma-Fix's team of waste professionals is uniquely qualified to effectively manage and dispose of midstream oil and gas waste. We are pleased to offer complete NORM and TENORM support and mixed waste treatment and disposal from compressor station to refinery.

Midstream Waste Treatment Capabilities & Services

  • NORM and RCRA waste treatment and disposal
  • Transportation and waste brokerage services
  • Radiation protection support
  • NORM program consultation and support

Wastes Accepted

  • NORM / RCRA contaminated pipeline pigging sludge
  • Pigging wash liquid
  • NORM / RCRA debris, including filter waste and related personal protective equipment
  • PCB contaminated sludge, liquid, and debris

Why Perma-Fix is the Partner of Choice

1. Location, location, location
Two of Perma-Fix's comprehensive waste treatment facilities, Diversified Scientific Services (DSSI) and Perma-Fix of Florida (PFF) are near major pipeline routes. It is estimated that 75-80% of domestic natural gas is consumed east of Texas, making our waste treatment facilities a convenient option for your pipeline waste disposal needs.

Gas Pipelines

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2. Exclusive Treatment Technologies
Our Diversified Scientific Services and Perma-Fix of Florida facilities feature the exclusive thermal treatment technologies and permits required to handle mixed waste sludge generated from pipeline maintenance activities. We have the expertise, experience and know-how to manage this waste compliantly and effectively.

3. We Specialized in Treating PCB Waste
DSSI operates the only commercial mixed waste combustion unit in the U.S. with TSCA treatment authorization from the EPA Region 4 to manage TSCA regulated PCB contaminated radioactive wastes. Located on 78 acres in Kingston, Tennessee, DSSI offers the only commercial thermal destruction capability for radioactively contaminated organic liquid and semi-solid mixed wastes. DSSI's knowledgeable staff has decades of mixed waste treatment experience since issuance of a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B Permit in 1989.

Man observing machinery

4. Convenient Transportation Options
Our network of brokers and transportation partners gives us an extensive footprint of operation.

Perma-Fix 30 Year Anniversary

Contact our NORM/TENORM waste treatment specialists today!
Perma-Fix Waste BD & Sales Team
contactus@perma-fix.com | 1-800-905-0501

EWOC Overlook/>
                                <h3>What is BSFR?</h3>
                                <p> Bulk Survey for Release is a licensed process by the State of Tennessee's Department
                                    of Environment and Conservation that allows for the disposal of materials with 
                                    extremely low levels of radioactive contamination at four landfills in Tennessee. 
                                    This cost-effective alternative offers a new disposal option for extremely low-level

                                <h3>Your Solution for BSFR</h3> 
                                <p>Perma-Fix's <a href=Environmental Waste Operations Center (EWOC) holds one of only four BSFR licenses in the state of Tennessee, providing a new cost-effective solution for low-level waste processing. EWOC has received waste for BSFR processing from nuclear utilities and from approved Treatment, Storage and Disposal Facilities (TSDF) around the country.

HMC Land

EWOC: A Multi-Disciplinary Low Level Radioactive Waste Processing and Treatment Facility

EWOC is strategically located in the East Tennessee Technology Park in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Newly opened in 2020, EWOC specializes in large component size/volume reduction, sort/segregation, and Bulk Survey for Release (BSRF) with capabilities to receive waste shipments by truck or rail. This 8.7-acre facility is dedicated to supporting low-level radioactive waste and disposition of multiple waste streams from both government and commercial customers.

Outside EWOC EWOC Rail Spur

Additional EWOC Treatment Capabilities:

  • Size reduction and packaging for disposal of large components and equipment
  • Size reduction, sort/seg of waste materials generated by DOE, DOD, commercial and nuclear industries cleanup activities
  • Decontamination of Equipment and Containers
  • Systems operability testing
  • Size reduction of rad-contaminated and BSRF scrap metal and debris

"We are excited to see our BSFR program grow, and we're pleased to provide this solution to our customers. Our Sort/Segregation and BSFR programs have provided significant savings to our customers compared to traditional disposal in a low-level waste landfill." - Sally McQuaid, EWOC General Manager

Contact our BSFR and LLW treatment specialists today!
Perma-Fix Waste BD & Sales Team
contactus@perma-fix.com | 1-800-905-0501

VTD Logo

Capacity Available to Accept Problematic Waste Now

Therma-Fix Gen3 is the culmination of 25 years of technological advancements, desorption-specific waste processing experience and regulatory knowledge. The electrically heated batch oven system has an operating range of up to 1400°F under a 29" Hg vacuum and uses a tray system to permit discreet segregation of customer waste. This innovative new system provides a unique and full treatment cycle of problematic waste and debuts in October 2021 at Perma-Fix of Florida.

What is Vacuum Thermal Desorption?

Therma-Fix Gen3 heats low level waste and mixed low-level waste to remove organics and recollects them as condensate. The vacuum allows lower temperatures to facilitate removal. Remaining solids are tested for LDR compliance and condensate is treated thermally.

Therma-Fix Gen3 Overview & Capabilities:

  • More Effective & Efficient Waste Treatment: Electric batch oven provides superior heat control; batch tray system prevents cross contamination
  • Greater Treatment Capacity: Treats up to 1,500 lbs. per day
  • Cleaner & Safer Solution: Complies with EPA's waste minimization program, supports land disposal footprint utilization
  • Cost Effective Solution: Higher capacity = less cost/lb.
  • Perma-Fix exclusively offers a FULL treatment cycle for these wastes!

Accepted Waste Streams:

  • Solids, Soils & Sludges containing volatiles and semi-volatiles
  • Mercury contaminated wastes
  • Activated charcoal
  • Spent carbon
  • Industrial pipeline / naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) waste

VTD Available Exclusively at Perma-Fix of Florida

Perma-Fix Florida (PFF) - Gainesville, FL
Specialties: Thermal and non-thermal treatment of low-level and mixed low-level waste by evaporation, vacuum thermal desorption, stabilization, sorting / segregation / repackaging, and macroencapsulation. PFF is also fully permitted to manage non-radioactive hazardous waste.

30 Year Anniversary

We're Here to Serve You - Contact Us Today!
Perma-Fix Waste Sales Team
contactus@perma-fix.com | 1-800-905-0501


"It goes beyond just the technology -- at Perma-Fix we deliver turn-key solutions."

In spring 2020, Perma-Fix debuted Perma-Sort, a new automated radiological characterization and segregation system for bulk materials. Drawing on our team of project managers, nuclear engineers, and certified health physicists (CHPs) with more than 50 years of soil sorting experience, Perma-Fix built a customized conveyor-based radiological assay system designed to provide 100% characterization of material efficiently and with industry-leading measurement quality. This innovative system offers management of end-point uncertainty with the characterization of both material exceeding the site acceptance criteria for transportation and disposal offsite and material meeting the site unrestricted release criteria.

How Perma-Sort Works:

Materials are loaded into a large feed hopper and then transported through the system with an electronically controlled conveyor survey belt. While on the survey belt, the material is analyzed and tracked. At the end of the survey belt, the material is transferred to a short reversing conveyor that spins in one direction for below criteria material and in the opposite direction for above criteria material. The reversing conveyor transfers materials to standard stacking conveyors which can then create piles of material or transfer directly to trucks or waste containers.

Supports a Broad Range of Contaminates:

  • Fission Products
  • Transuranics
  • Heavy Metals
  • Beryllium

Perma-Sort Capabilities:

  • Trailer mounted system for simple and rapid mobilization and setup
  • Material output can be discharged into virtually any container size or managed with multiple takeaway conveyors
  • Capable of processing > 200 tons of bulk materials per hour
  • Industry leading radiological measurement quality
  • Operating software supports multiple material profiles for varying bulk material types
  • Automated reporting supports MARSSIM and FSS objectives as waste disposal objectives such as profiling and waste disposal
  • Abundant guards, railings, remote e-stops, and keyed lock-outs ensure safety for system operators and near-by support staff
  • Material is processed with minimal effluent and noise emissions

Learn More
Men in hazard suits hadnling a waste drum

As the nation continues to reopen after a challenging 2020, we want to be your partner in success. Perma-Fix is here to solve your hazardous and radioactive waste challenges by providing cost-effective and innovative solutions, state-of the-art treatment facilities, extensive regulatory knowledge, and 30+ years of compliant waste management disposition.

Our Services & Capabilities

Perma-Fix focuses our expertise to meet customer needs by providing effective solutions for a wide variety of waste streams. Our four conveniently located facilities are licensed, permitted, and equipped to efficiently treat your mixed low-level and low-level radioactive waste.

Perma-Fix Waste Table
Waste Containers Men in hazard suits handling waste Metal Waste Drums

Our Facilities

Diversified Scientific Services, Inc. (DSSI) - Kingston, TN
Specialties: Thermal destruction of radioactive and liquid mixed wastes including TSCA and non-TSCA regulated PCBs via a licensed combustion process.

Environmental Waste Operations Center (EWOC) - Oak Ridge, TN
Specialties: Receipt and management of LLW waste streams; specializing in large component size/volume reduction, sort/segregation and Bulk Survey for Release (BSRF). EWOC is strategically located in the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) to receive your LLW by truck or rail.

Perma-Fix Florida (PFF) - Gainesville, FL
Specialties: Thermal and non-thermal treatment of low-level and mixed low-level waste by evaporation, vacuum thermal desorption, stabilization, sorting / segregation / repackaging, and macroencapsulation. PFF is also fully permitted to manage non-radioactive hazardous waste.

Perma-Fix Northwest (PFNW) - Richland, WA
Specialties: Thermal and non-thermal treatment and volume reduction of large volumes of low-level, mixed low level, and transuranic wastes.

We're Here to Serve You - Contact Us Today!

Perma-Fix Waste BD & Sales Team

Nuclear, Techinical and Waste services logo

Mercury Almalgamation

Leverage Our Extensive Experience with Elemental Mercury Disposition

Mercury of various forms have been widely used throughout the U.S. and internationally, and to date, more than 600,000 pounds of this radioactive waste co-contaminated with mercury have been processed by one of Perma-Fix's many treatment technologies. Perma-Fix has implemented treatment solutions based on available and patented technologies to address these problematic wastes.

Perma-Fix provides effective treatment of radioactive-contaminated elemental mercury via amalgamation, the required treatment method for these wastes. Perma-Fix employs a patented amalgamation process using proprietary reagents that meet the EPA technology treatment standard (AMLGM). This process treats elemental mercury waste to meet the requirement of AMLGM using chemical reagents that bind the mercury and render it non-leachable. Mercury treatment is provided in a dedicated area of the facilities, with its own air handling and filtration system, for treatment of large volume, mercury contaminated wastes (elemental) using a proprietary amalgamation and stabilization process.

Our Experience: Mercury Waste Materials Managed at Perma-Fix Facilities
Waste Type Quantity (Tons) Processing Technology
Elemental Mercury 181 Amalgamation
Mercury-Contaminated Debris 1,050 Mercury Roasting/Amalgamation
Mercury-Contaminated Liquids 5,000 Thermal Processing/Stabilization
Mercury-Contaminated Solids/Soils 10,135 Mercury Roasting/Amalgamation/Stabilization

Two of our four facilities, Perma-Fix of Florida and Diversified Scientific Services, are licensed and permitted to receive, handle and store mercury for up to one year. With over $50 million of investment in facilities and technologies, Perma-Fix offers the most comprehensive low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) treatment facilities available in the U.S. Our experience, capacity, and regulatory compliance history set us apart in the industry. We are continually investing in new technologies to offer the most current state-of-the-art treatment options in the market.

Acceptable Mercury Wastes

  • Wastes with soluble mercury (less than 260 ppm)
  • Soils with high mercury levels (greater than 260 ppm)
  • Wastes (non-soils) with high mercury levels (greater than 260 ppm)
  • Elemental mercury

Perma-Fix is your solution for effectively disposing of hazardous mercury. Leveraging extensive experience and expertise, we are a leader in turnkey nuclear waste management and radiological protection services with core competencies that include waste management. We have completed over $2.2 billion in work since our inception in 1991. We have earned a reputation for providing practical, technical, and cost saving approaches to clients. We pride ourselves on supporting waste management, treatment, and disposal projects from initial characterization all the way through storage, final processing, and disposal. This approach has proven to have positive impacts for our clients and ensures mission completion through increased efficiencies while also minimizing liability with timely and compliant disposition of the most difficult waste challenges.

How can we assist you? Contact us today to get started.

George Taylor
Perma-Fix Environmental Services
Vice President, Waste Services BD/Sales
Office Phone: (865) 342-7613
Cell Phone: (865) 310-2841

Nuclear, Technical and Waste Services logo


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Read about our new electrically heated batch oven system

Perma Sort controller


Read about our Bulk Material Segregation System

Men Handling a waste container

How Can We Assist You in 2021?

Read about our facilities, services, and capabilities

Mercury Amalgamation

Got Mercury? We have your solution.

Read about how Perma-Fix can help you treat radioactive-contaminated elemental mercury via amalgamation.


Waste Treatment

Our fixed base facilities offer highly specialized treatment options that help reduce risk and avoid costly internal program development.

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Nuclear & Technical

Our highly experienced team of professionals can handle domestic and international challenges across all project disciplines.

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We repair, calibrate and rent radiological and industrial hygiene instrumentation, and have one of the country's largest commercial instrument inventories.

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Our research team specializes in development of new and innovative solutions that manage risk and create value associated with nuclear materials.

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NORM / TENORM Services

Our team provides turn-key services for NORM management, specializing in tailoring solutions for difficult waste streams and strategic support which range from regulatory compliance consulting to turn-key NORM program management design and implementation.

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